[2014] Precision Alignment And Calibration Of Optical Systems Using Computer Generated Holograms

Coyle, Laura Elizabeth. Precision alignment and calibration of optical systems using computer generated holograms. The University of Arizona, 2014.


As techniques for manufacturing and metrology advance, optical systems are being designed with more complexity than ever before. Given these prescriptions, alignment and calibration can be a limiting factor in their final performance. Computer generated holograms (CGHs) have several unique properties that make them powerful tools for meeting these demanding tolerances. This work will present three novel methods for alignment and calibration of optical systems using computer generated holograms.

Alignment methods using CGHs require that the optical wavefront created by the CGH be related to a mechanical datum to locate it space. An overview of existing methods is provided as background, then two new alignment methods are discussed in detail. In the first method, the CGH contact Ball Alignment Tool (CBAT) is used to align a ball or sphere mounted retroreflector (SMR) to a Fresnel zone plate pattern with micron level accuracy. The ball is bonded directly onto the CGH substrate and provides permanent, accurate registration between the optical wavefront and a mechanical reference to locate the CGH in space. A prototype CBAT was built and used to align and bond an SMR to a CGH. In the second method, CGH references are used to align axisymmetric optics in four degrees of freedom with low uncertainty and real time feedback. The CGHs create simultaneous 3D optical references where the zero order reflection sets tilt and the first diffracted order sets centration. The flexibility of the CGH design can be used to accommodate a wide variety of optical systems and maximize sensitivity to misalignments. A 2-CGH prototype system was aligned multiplied times and the alignment uncertainty was quantified and compared to an error model.

Finally, an enhanced calibration method is presented. It uses multiple perturbed measurements of a master sphere to improve the calibration of CGH-based Fizeau interferometers ultimately measuring aspheric test surfaces. The improvement in the calibration is a function of the interferometer error and the aspheric departure of the desired test surface. This calibration is most effective at reducing coma and trefoil from figure error or misalignments of the interferometer components. The enhanced calibration can reduce overall measurement uncertainty or allow the budgeted error contribution from another source to be increased. A single set of sphere measurements can be used to calculate calibration maps for closely related aspheres, including segmented primary mirrors for telescopes. A parametric model is developed and compared to the simulated calibration of a case study interferometer

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