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[2013] Optical testing with computer generated holograms: comprehensive error analysis

Zhao, Chunyu, and James H. Burge. “Optical testing with computer generated holograms: comprehensive error analysis.” Optical Manufacturing and Testing X. Vol. 8838. SPIE, 2013.


Interferometry with computer generated holograms (CGHs) has become the industry standard for accurate measurements of aspheric optical surfaces. The CGH is a diffractive optical element that can be designed to create virtually any phase or amplitude distribution, and can be accurately manufactured using methods and equipment developed for integrated circuit production. Surface measurements with nanometer level precision can be performed using accurately well calibrated equipment. This paper provides a systematic analysis of all significant sources of error for CGH metrology, including encoding error, pattern distortion, substrate irregularity and calibration, and system alignment.

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